Incarceration and Reentry: What You Need to Know About Incarceration in North Carolina
The State of Incarceration in North Carolina
A tenth of North Carolina’s population, or 1.3 million people, has a criminal record. On any given day, there are roughly 91,000 people on probation or parole, and about 40,000 people are incarcerated in either a prison or jail. That’s 131,000 people under government supervision every day! Of those 131,000 people, 98% will return home.
Once an individual has returned home, there are two outcomes: successfully reintegrate back into society or return to prison. 60% of people will successfully return, leaving about 40% to recidivate (returning to incarceration) within 3 years of release.
Returning to prison can mean additional crimes committed, more tax dollars used to keep them there and more broken homes. We want to reduce the number of people this happens to. By reducing recidivism, we can reduce crime rates, ACEs (Adverse Childhood Experiences), tax spending on prisons, negative social determinants of health, and poverty; and see improvements in the economy, family involvement, and the long term health of those returning citizens and their families.
Some terms to know when talking about incarceration:
Returning Citizen vs Ex-Con, Ex-Felon, Convict
Traditionally, people released from prison have been referred to as ex-con, ex-felon, convict or any number of variations. These terms have a lot of baggage and bias associated with them and encourages people to define returning citizens by one negative factor of their life. The preferred term is returning citizen. Returning citizen recognizes the mistakes of their past, but focuses on the positive possibilities for their future.
Reentry vs Recidivism
Reentry refers to a returning citizens leaving prison and integrating back into society. High reentry rates are a good thing! They mean more people are returning home to their families.
In the simplest terms, recidivism means a person is returning to prison either for a parole violation or for a new offense. Reducing recidivism means reducing the additional crimes and violations, and thus keeping people out of prison so they have a better chance to reentry society successfully.
Probation vs Parole vs Community Supervision
Probation and parole are alternatives to prison or jail time. Probation is an alternative to prison or jail time, while parole is an early release from prison or jail. Both have strict requirements from alcohol use to work requirements to visits with their supervising officer. Community Supervision refers to someone who is either on probation or parole. There are about 91,000 people under community supervision on any given day in North Carolina. That’s twice the average population in prison on any day.
Nationwide, 1 in every 55 adults are under community supervision. Unfortunately, only half of those on probation or parole will successfully complete their sentence. The other half will be put into prison or jail for parole or probation violations. Often, these are technical violations which means no crimes were committed.
Jail vs Prison
Although many people use jail and prison interchangeably, they are two very different places for two different purposes.
Jails are confinement facilities for short-term use. Most people in jail are waiting for trial or sentencing; or are serving short amounts of time for a minor offense, such as a misdemeanor. Jails are run by local law enforcement.
Prisons are facilities for people who have already been sentenced for a crime. Usually, people in prison have committed a felony offense. Prisons are run by the state or federal government, and some prisons are run by private corporations.
The Big Picture
1 in 3 families acquire debt due to the high cost of phone calls and the long distance travel for in person visits. Men and women are, on average, in prisons that are 100 and 160 miles, respectively, away from their children.
Prisoners are likely to have grown up in segregated and isolated neighborhoods with high rates of child poverty. These neighborhoods’ residents tend to be predominantly African American or American Indian.
Why it Matters
It costs about $28,000 to keep an inmate incarcerated each year. Multiply that by 67,000 people in jail or prison in 2018 and that’s $1.9 million dollars per year just to keep people incarcerated! Meanwhile, the average cost spent on students in North Carolina is only $8,000 per student.
What would happen if we didn’t have so many people incarcerated? What could those tax dollars do?
Reducing incarceration would allow us to keep building strong families and strong communities. It would improve the health and happiness of children and adults alike. Having more people working improves the economy. It improves the quality and quantity of services in your area. Overall, we all benefit when we help each other succeed.